Compensation and Liability Conventions

CLC 92

The 1992 Civil Liability Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The Convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged.

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Fund 92

The 1992 Fund Convention, which is supplementary to the 1992 CLC, establishes a regime for compensating victims when compensation under the 1992 CLC is not available or is inadequate. The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, 1992 (1992 Fund) was set up under the 1992 Fund Convention.

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Supplementary Fund 2003

The Supplementary Fund Protocol, which was adopted in 2003, entered into force in 2005, thereby establishing the International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary Fund, 2003 (Supplementary Fund). The Supplementary Fund provides additional compensation beyond the amount available under the 1992 Fund Convention in 1992 Fund Member States which are also Parties to the Protocol. Annual contributions to the Supplementary Fund are made on the same basis as contributions to the 1992 Fund. However, the contribution system for the Supplementary Fund differs from that of the 1992 Fund in that, for the purpose of paying contributions, at least 1 million tonnes of contributing oil are deemed to have been received each year in each Member State.

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You can also dowload the decision-making support chart to know more about potential financial implications.

Bunker 2001

The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage was adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers. The convention is modelled on the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage. It is important to note that the Bunker Convention must be accompanied by the 1996 LLMC Convention to sett the limits of liability or by a national limitation regime.

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Under the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (LLMC) the limit of liability for claims covered is raised considerably. Limits are specified for two types of claims - claims for loss of life or personal injury, and property claims (such as damage to other ships, property or harbour works). The Convention provides for a virtually unbreakable system of limiting liability. Shipowners and salvors may limit their liability, except if "it is proved that the loss resulted from his personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such a loss, or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result".

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HNS Convention and its Protocol 2010

The HNS Convention was adopted in 1996 to insure adequate and efficient compensation to victims of accidents involving HNS, such as chemicals. The Convention is based on the two-tier system established under the CLC and Fund Conventions.

More information here.

You can also download IMO brochure for HNS Convention & Protocol.